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版主 三级运动员 少年级运动员

发表于 2013-3-24 13:34:35 |显示全部楼层
边跑边学之作业—八种跑步类型(译文)
首先声明,此篇不具有专业的参考价值,我是一个外语盲,能弄成这样就不容易了,勿哂笑。发出来,“三人行必有我师”,是希望得到专家和高手的指正,谢谢。
注:红字部分是不懂或有疑问的地方。

The Eight Basic Run Types
八种跑步类型

There are eight basic types of runs that are practiced by runners of all levels everywhere. These evolved through a global trial-and-error process over many decades. They survived because they work. If you want to get the most out of the time you devote to training, you will need to learn and practice them, too. You can add all kinds of wrinkles to these formats — for example by combining two of them within a single session — but even in their most basic form, the workouts described on the following pages will help you become a better runner。

有八种跑步类型正在被全世界各种水平的跑步者实践并使用着。这些成形的训练方法是几代人通过反复实践,凡是存在的必是合理的,对于这些跑步方法亦是如此道理。如果你是一个真正的跑步爱好者,除了训练,你更应该学习和实践这些方法。对于日常单调刻板的跑步模式,你也可以运用一些小窍门组合——比如,在一个训练单元中把两种跑步类型进行组合。在下面的篇幅里描述了这些训练方法将帮你成为更快更强的跑者。


Recovery Run
恢复跑
A recovery run is a relatively short run performed at an easy pace. Recovery runs serve to add a little mileage to a runner’s training without taking away from performance in the harder, more important workouts that precede and follow them. Recovery runs are best done as the next run after a hard workout such as an interval run. Do your recovery runs as slowly as necessary to feel relatively comfortable despite lingering fatigue from your previous run.
Example: 4 miles easy
恢复跑是一种相对比较短距离的跑,对速度要求也不高,你只要感觉是轻松在跑就可以了。恢复跑少量的里程适合于高强度、核心训练之前或者之后,不会影响训练成效。最佳的做法是用于像间隙跑这样的训练之后使用。当你用尽量慢的速度去跑的时候,你有没有感觉到疲劳从你的身体里逐渐消失了?
实例:4英里轻松恢复跑。


Base Run
基础跑
A base run is a relatively short to moderate-length run undertaken at a runner’s natural pace. While individual base runs are not meant to be challenging, they are meant to be done frequently, and in the aggregate they stimulate big improvements in aerobic capacity, endurance, and running economy. Base runs will make up a bulk of your weekly training mileage.
Example: 6 miles at natural pace
基础跑也是种相对短距离的跑,跑步者用感觉自然放松的步速进行节制的短距离跑。而这种独特的基础跑并不是意味着去挑战,他们必须经常做,总之,基础跑对促进有氧能力、耐力的提高和改善跑姿的经济性上有很大作用,基础跑应该是占据你的训练周期中的大部分里程。
实例:用轻松自然的步速跑6英里。
Long Run
长距离跑
Generally, a long run is a base run that lasts long enough to leave a runner moderately to severely fatigued. The function of a long run is to increase raw endurance. The distance or duration required to achieve this effect depends, of course, on your current level of endurance. As a general rule, your longest run should be long enough to give you confidence that raw endurance will not limit you in races. There are many spins you can put on a long run, such as progressing the pace from start to finish or mixing intervals (described on the last page) into the run.
Example: 15 miles at natural pace
通常,长距离跑也是基础跑的一种,这种持续长的奔跑留给普通跑者的是严重的疲劳感。长距离跑的效果是为了增加耐力,这种效果是依赖足够长的距离和持续时间,当然,以你当前的耐力水平做为基准。一般来说,这个距离应该是给你足够的信心,当你在比赛的时候这些新生的耐力会带给你更多经验。呵呵,如果你使用从开始到结束的渐快跑,或者混合了间隙跑(将在下节解释)在里面,这时你可能会出现坐在旋转木马上的感觉,头晕目眩的。
例:15英里自然速度跑

Progression Run
渐快/进阶跑
A progression run is a run that begins at a runner’s natural pace and ends with a faster segment at anywhere from marathon down to 10K pace. These runs are generally intended to be moderately challenging—harder than base runs but easier than most threshold and interval runs. Because they’re a medium-effort workout, the recovery time is less than more intense sessions.
Example: 5 miles at natural pace + 1 mile at marathon pace + 1 mile at half-marathon pace
进阶跑是这样一种跑法:跑者最初以自然放松的步速跑,结束的时候用较快的速度,这种跑的距离可以马拉松全程,也可以是10K。这种跑法通常具有一定的挑战性,难度比基础跑大点儿,但是比乳酸门槛和间隙跑容易多了。因为属于中等难易程度的训练,所以它的恢复时间也短于其它激烈的跑法。
例:5英里自然速度跑+1英里马拉松速度+1英里半马速度。

Fartlek
法特莱克跑
A fartlek workout is a base run that mixes in intervals of varying duration or distance. It’s a good way to begin the process of developing efficiency and fatigue resistance at faster speeds in the early phases of the training cycle, or to get a moderate dose of fast running later in the training cycle in addition to the larger doses provided by tempo/threshold and interval workouts. They can also serve as a less-structured alternative to a traditional interval session such as a track workout.
Example: 6 miles at natural pace with 10 x 1:00 pickups at 5K pace with 1:00 recoveries mid-run
法特莱克训练内容是混合了各种距离和时间的间隙跑的一种跑法。它是一种有效的抵抗疲劳的好办法,适合在提高速度的训练周期中的早期阶段。在训练周期里它是一剂适度的补药,而猛药是乳酸门槛和间隙跑。当在跑道上训练时,稍微改进结构,它们的作用也类似于我们习惯进行的间隙跑。
实例:6英里轻松跑然后跑101分钟加速跑,速度是5公里比赛速度,期间1分钟中等速度跑恢复。

Hill Repeats
Hill repeats are repeated short segments of hard uphill running. They increase aerobic power, high-intensity fatigue resistance, pain tolerance, and run-specific strength. The ideal hill on which to run hill repeats features a steady, moderate gradient of 4 to 6 percent. Hill repetitions are typically done at the end of the base-building period as a relatively safe way to introduce harder high-intensity training into the program.
Example: 2 miles of easy jogging (warmup) + 10 x 45-second hill repeats at a hard effort with 2-minute jogging recovery between reps + 2 miles easy jogging (cooldown)
坡跑
坡跑是选择一个选短的、有一定爬升高度的坡进行重复跑的训练方法。这种训练方法增加了有氧能力、高强的抗疲劳能力,痛苦的忍受力,和特殊的奔跑能力。可理想的坡是有一个稳定的4-6%坡度比较合适,山坡跑代表性的做法在基础训练结束之后,做为一个比较安全的训练内容加入到高级训练计划里。
实例:2英里慢跑(热身跑)+10*45秒山坡重复跑,要用相当的努力,每组中间两分钟放松跑恢复,2英里慢跑冷身。

Tempo Run
乳酸门槛跑
A tempo run is a sustained effort at lactate threshold intensity, which is the fastest pace that can be sustained for one hour in highly fit runners and the fastest pace that can be sustained for 20 minutes in less fit runners. Tempo or threshold runs serve to increase the speed you can sustain for a prolonged period of time and to increase the time you can sustain that relatively fast pace.
Example: 1 mile of easy jogging (warmup) + 4 miles at lactate threshold pace + 1 mile of easy jogging (cooldown)
乳酸门槛跑是一种比较痛苦的跑,要努力维持在乳酸门槛的临界强度。这种方法的对速度要求很高,对于高水平的跑者,能够以这个速度连续奔跑一个小时,对于较弱水平的跑者,应该维持20分钟左右。乳酸门槛跑对增加速度有用,尽量延长你能够维持这个速度的时间,,,,这句实在不懂了。
实例:1英里轻松跑+4英里乳酸门槛跑+1英里放松跑冷身。


There is a specific type of tempo run that is known as a marathon-pace run. A prolonged run at marathon pace is a good workout to perform at a very challenging level in the final weeks of preparation for a marathon, after you’ve established adequate raw endurance with long runs and longer progression runs featuring smaller amounts of marathon-pace running.
Example: 2 miles at natural pace + 13.1 miles at marathon pace
有一种特殊类型的乳酸门槛跑,这就是众所周知马拉松配速跑。在准备马拉松比赛最后的几周,进行马拉松配速跑长距离是很好的训练形式,有很大的挑战性。用这样长或者更长的跑步进行测试之后,你心里就有底了,你在比赛时就能胜任这个生疏的耐力,这就是马拉松配速跑起到的作用。
例:2英里自然速度跑+13.1英里马拉松配速跑。
Intervals
间隙跑
Interval workouts consist of repeated shorter segments of fast running separated by slow jogging or standing recoveries. This format enables a runner to pack more fast running into a single workout than he or she could with a single prolonged fast effort to exhaustion.
间隙训练是由多次重复快速跑的小单元组成的,区别在于恢复的形式不同,是慢跑或原地休息。这种打包的训练方式能够让跑者速度更快,比让人精疲力竭的延长速度的训练模式要好。

Interval workouts are typically subcategorized as short intervals and long intervals, and are often performed on the track. Long intervals are 600 to 1,200-meter segments run in the range of 5K race pace with easy jogging recoveries between them. They’re an excellent means of progressively developing efficiency and fatigue resistance at fast running speeds.
Example: 1 mile of easy jogging (warmup) + 5 x 1K at 5K race pace with 400m jogging recoveries + 1 mile of easy jogging (cooldown)
间隙跑训练有两种代表性的子范畴,一种是短的、一种长的。这种练习需要经常在跑道上进行的。600-1200米是长间隙跑,一般用5公里比赛速度,期间用慢跑恢复。这是一种非常出色的训练方式,经过一段时间的训练,在快速奔跑的时候,你能明显的感觉到自己的实力和抗疲劳能力的提高。
实例:1英里轻松慢跑热身+5*1000m(5公里比赛速度),中间400m慢跑恢复+1英里轻松跑冷身。


Short intervals are 100 to 400m segments run at roughly 1,500m race pace or faster. They boost speed, running economy, fatigue resistance at fast speeds and pain tolerance. Distance runners typically use shorter, faster intervals earlier in the training cycle to increase their pure speed and then move to slightly longer, endurance-based intervals to improve fatigue resistance.
Example: 1 mile of easy jogging (warmup) + 10 x 300m at 1 mile race pace with 200m jogging recoveries + 1 mile of easy jogging (cooldown)
100-400米的是短间隙,速度约略是1500米的比赛速度或者更快。这种快速奔跑的训练方式提高了速度、跑步的经济性、抗疲劳能力、和对疼痛的忍受力。耐力跑选手在训练周期的早期有针对性的加入短、快间隙的训练模式,可以提高纯粹的速度,之后转换到稍长的间隙训练,以耐力为基础的间隙可以提高抗疲劳能力。
实例:1英轻松热身跑,10*300米快速跑(用1英里的比赛速度),组间200米慢跑恢复,最后1英里轻松慢跑冷身。
那些我们以为念念不忘的事,就在我们念念不忘的日子里被我们忘记了。

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发表于 2013-6-15 22:27:43 |显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主,学习了!
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